The organizational structure of the University of Oviedo consists of collegiate and single-person bodies of governance, representation, consultancy and safeguards. In addition to its Centres, Departments and Institutes, there are some general bodies that establish guidelines for the organization and management of universities.

Within the general bodies of the university, the Office of the Rector is the collegiate body that holds the representation of the academic institution, supported by the Rector's Delegates. The Rectoral team is made up of single-person bodies which provide advice and guidance in decision-making, comprising the different Vice-Rectors, General Secretary and University Administrator.

Figuring among the institution's governing and representative bodies, in which all sectors of the university community participate, are the Governing Council, the University Senate and the Advisory Council, where both the regional government and representatives of Asturian society are represented. There is another series of collegiate bodies providing advice and safeguards, like the Rectoral Council and the Central Electoral Board, in addition to bodies commissioned by the Senate, such as the University Ombudsman, responsible for ensuring respect for the rights and freedoms of lecturers, students and administration and service personnel.